The League of Nations: Definition, WW1 & Failure - HISTORY (2024)

What Was the League of Nations?

The League of Nations has its origins in the Fourteen Points speech of President Woodrow Wilson, part of a presentation given in 1918 outlining of his ideas for peace after the carnage of World War I. Wilson envisioned an organization that was charged with resolving conflicts before they exploded into bloodshed and warfare.

Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

By December of the same year, Wilson left for Paris to transform his Fourteen Points into what would become the Treaty of Versailles. Seven months later, he returned to the United States with a treaty that included the idea for what became the League of Nations.

Republican Congressman from Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge led a battle against the treaty. Lodge believed both the treaty and the League undercut U.S. autonomy in international matters.

In response, Wilson took the debate to the American people, embarking on a 27-day train journey to sell the treaty to live audiences but cut his tour short due to exhaustion and sickness. Upon arriving back in Washington, D.C., Wilson had a stroke.

Congress did not ratify the treaty, and the United States refused to take part in the League of Nations. Isolationists in Congress feared it would draw the United Sates into international affairs unnecessarily.

Paris Peace Conference

In other countries, the League of Nations was a more popular idea.

Under the leadership of Lord Cecil, the British Parliament created the Phillimore Committee as an exploratory body and announced support of it. French liberals followed, with the leaders of Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Greece, Czechoslovakia and other smaller nations responding in kind.

Legacy of World War I

WATCH: The Legacy of World War I

In 1919 the structure and process of the League were laid out in a covenant developed by all the countries taking part in the Paris Peace Conference. The League began organizational work in the fall of 1919, spending its first 10 months with a headquarters in London before moving to Geneva.

The Covenant of the League of Nations went into effect on January 10, 1920, formally instituting the League of Nations. By 1920, 48 countries had joined.

League of Nations Plays it Safe

The League struggled for the right opportunity to assert its authority. Secretary-General Sir Eric Drummond believed that failure was likely to damage the burgeoning organization, so it was best not to insinuate itself into just any dispute.

When Russia, which was not a member of the League, attacked a port in Persia in 1920, Persia appealed to the League for help. The League refused to take part, believing that Russia would not acknowledge their jurisdiction and that would damage the League’s authority.

Adding to the growing pains, some European countries had a hard time handing over autonomy when seeking help with disputes.

There were situations in which the League had no choice but to get involved. From 1919 to 1935, the League acted as a trustee of a tiny region between France and Germany called the Saar. The League became the 15-year custodian of the coal-rich area to allow it time to determine on its own which of the two countries it wished to join, with Germany being the eventual choice.

A similar situation happened in Danzig, which was set-up as a free city by the Treaty of Versailles and became the center of a dispute between Germany and Poland. The League administered Danzig for several years before it fell back under German rule.

League of Nations

Disputes Solved by the League of Nations

Poland was in frequent distress, fearing for its independence against threats from neighboring Russia, which in 1920 occupied the city of Vilna and handed it over to Lithuanian allies. Following a demand that Poland recognize Lithuanian independence, the League became involved.

Vilna was returned to Poland, but hostilities with Lithuania continued. The League was also brought in as Poland grappled with Germany about Upper Silesia and with Czechoslovakia over the town of Teschen.

Other areas of dispute that the League got involved in included the squabble between Finland and Sweden over the Aaland Islands; disputes between Hungary and Rumania; Finland’s separate quarrels with Russia, Yugoslavia and Austria; a border argument between Albania and Greece; and the tussle between France and England over Morocco.

In 1923, following the murder of Italian General Enrico Tellini and his staff within the borders of Greece, Benito Mussolini retaliated by bombing and invading the Greek island Corfu. Greece requested the League’s help, but Mussolini refused to work with it.

The League was left on the sidelines watching as the dispute was solved instead by the Conference of Ambassadors, an Allied group that was later made part of the League.

The Incident at Petrich followed two years later. It’s unclear precisely how the debacle in the border town of Petrich in Bulgaria started, but it resulted in the deaths of a Greek captain and retaliation from Greece in the form of invasion.

Bulgaria apologized and begged the League for help. The League decreed a settlement that was accepted by both countries.

Larger Efforts by the League of Nations

Other League efforts include the Geneva Protocol, devised in the 1920s to limit what is now understood as chemical and biological weaponry, and the World Disarmament Conference in the 1930s, which was meant to make disarmament a reality but failed after Adolf Hitler broke away from the conference and the League in 1933.

In 1920 the League created its Mandates Commission, charged with protecting minorities. Its suggestions about Africa were treated seriously by France and Belgium but ignored by South Africa. In 1929, the Mandates Commission helped Iraq join the League.

The Mandates Commission also got involved in tensions in Palestine between the incoming Jewish population and Palestinian Arabs, though any hopes of sustaining peace there was further complicated by Nazi persecution of the Jews, which lead to a rise in immigration to Palestine.

The League was also involved in the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which sought to outlaw war. It was successfully adapted by over 60 countries. Put to the test when Japan invaded Mongolia in 1931, the League proved incapable of enforcing the pact.

Why Did the League of Nations Fail?

When World War II broke out, most members of the League were not involved and claimed neutrality, but members France and Germany were immediately impacted.

In 1940, League members Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and France all fell to Hitler. Switzerland became nervous about hosting an organization perceived as an Allied one, and the League began to dismantle its offices.

Soon the Allies endorsed the idea of the United Nations, which held its first planning conference in San Francisco in 1944, effectively ending any need for the League of Nations to make a post-war return.


The Guardians. Susan Pederson.
The League of Nations: From 1919 to 1929. Gary B. Ostrower.
The League of Nations, 1920. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian.
The League of Nations and the United Nations. BBC.

The League of Nations: Definition, WW1 & Failure - HISTORY (2024)


The League of Nations: Definition, WW1 & Failure - HISTORY? ›

The League of Nations was established at the end of World War I as an international peacekeeping organization. Although US President Woodrow Wilson was an enthusiastic proponent of the League, the United States did not officially join the League of Nations due to opposition from isolationists in Congress.

What was the League of Nations in ww1? ›

The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes.

Why did the League of Nations fail choose 1 answer? ›

Expert-Verified Answer

The League of Nations failed due to opposition from Britain, the US's refusal to join, France's demands for war reparations, Germany's defiance, and the League's inability to effectively enforce its resolutions. All Option are correct.

Why did the League of Nations fail short answer? ›

The failures of the League in the 1930s were not only because of aggressor nations undermining its authority, but also down to its own members. Britain and France, the two most influential members, ignored the League in their efforts to appease Hitler - actions that arguably led to the outbreak of the Second World War.

What was the League of Nations and why did it fail quizlet? ›

The League's power was weak because sanctions did not work, and it had no army. The strongest nation, the USA, never joined. Britain and France were not strong enough to impose peace of their own. The League's organization made it take a long time for things to be done, and decisions had to be unanimous.

What were the success and failures of the League of Nations? ›

So, the League of Nations was successful in small ways in the 1920s, stopping small wars and improving lives. But it could not defend the Treaty of Versailles, it failed to get disarmament, and it could not persuade powerful countries to stop fighting.

What was the League of Nations world History definition? ›

The League at work. Transition to the United Nations. The League of Nations (1920 – 1946) was the first intergovernmental organization established “to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security”. It is often referred to as the “predecessor” of the United Nations.

What was one major reason the League of Nations failed ____________________? ›

But despite its peace keeping agenda the league failed in preventing another war due to the following reasons: Major powers such as the USA, Soviet Russia and Germany were not part of the league. This limited the international scope of the organisation working on behalf of all member nations.

When did the League of Nations fail? ›

The onset of the Second World War in 1939 showed that the League had failed its primary purpose; it was largely inactive until its abolition. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it in 1946 and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.

What was one reason why the League of Nations was rejected? ›

Motivated by Republican concerns that the League would commit the United States to an expensive organization that would reduce the United States' ability to defend its own interests, Lodge led the opposition to joining the League.

What were the weakness of the League of Nations? ›

The League had several strengths, such as creating a platform for international dialogue, resolving conflicts among smaller nations, and non-political achievements but had weaknesses like the absence of major powers, reliance on unanimous decisions, lack of a military force, and failure to prevent aggression by major ...

Why did Wilson's 14 points fail? ›

Expert-Verified Answer. Final answer: President Wilson's Fourteen Points failed at the Treaty of Versailles due to Allied leaders' desires for retribution against Germany, conflicting national interests, and domestic opposition in the U.S. Senate against the League of Nations.

What was the conclusion of the League of Nations? ›

Conclusion. The Allied Powers founded the League of Nations as an organization for international cooperation just at the end of World War I. The League failed after failing to prevent Japanese expansion towards China, Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, and Germany's annexation of Austria throughout World War II.

Which describes one of the reasons the League of Nations failed? ›

‍ Not only did the League lack effective enforcement mechanisms, but many countries refused to join and were therefore not bound to respect the rules and obligations of membership.

How did the failure of the League of Nations lead to the rise of dictatorship? ›

The League of Nations has thus proven weak and has struggled to achieve its target. At the same time, in many European countries, the newly established government has not given the nation stable political and economic conditions. This gave way to Hitler and Mussolini's dictatorship.

What are the reasons behind the failure of the members of the League of Nations to carry out the principle of collective security against state's aggression? ›

Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were founded on the principle of collective security. Neither the League nor the United Nations were able to operate the principle successfully to prevent aggression because of the conflicts of interest among states, especially among the major powers.

What was the League of Nations and what happened to it? ›

The League of Nations was an organization for international cooperation. It was established on January 10, 1920, at the initiative of the victorious Allied powers at the end of World War I and was formally disbanded on April 19, 1946.

What is the League of Nations ww1 for kids? ›

The countries that won World War I (1914–18) set up an organization called the League of Nations. They wanted the League to be a place where countries could settle disagreements by talking instead of fighting. However, the League was not strong enough to keep World War II from breaking out in 1939.

What point was the League of Nations? ›

The fourteenth point proposed what was to become the League of Nations to guarantee the “political independence and territorial integrity [of] great and small states alike.”

What's the difference between the League of Nations and the United Nations? ›

Among the major differences are the rule of unanimity at the League of Nations versus the rule of the majority at the UN or the UN Security Council's competence to take binding decisions under certain circ*mstances.


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